types of gemstones

Types of Gemstones from A to Z

Types of Gemstones A to Z

This types of gemstones directory is based on information from Gemological institute of America. GIA is considered the world authority on gemstone and diamond research, grading and education.

GemstoneCharacteristicsMohs Hardness
AlexandriteBluish green in daylight, purplish red under incandescent light; hard and durable8.5
AmberYellow, orange or golden brown; a fossilized resin, inclusions sometimes preserve ancient life2.5
AmethystPurple to pastel gems from African and South American mines. Browse amethyst jewelry >7
AmmoliteEach gemstone displays captivating, iridescent rainbow colors. Browse ammolite jewelry >3.5-8
AquamarineClear blue to greenish-blue variety of the mineral beryl. Browse aquamarine jewelry >8
CitrinePopular yellow variety of quartz that ranges from yellow to brown-orange color. Browse citrine jewelry >7
DiamondValued for their colorless purity, but found in all rainbow colors; most diamonds are over a billion years old10
EmeraldBlue green to deep green variety of beryl, sourced from Africa, South America and Asia. Browse emerald jewelry >8
GarnetFound in all the colors of the rainbow, known for red, orange and green; colors vary in their rarity. Browse garnet jewelry >7.5
IoliteBlue to violet hue, that can also display a pale yellow or colorless hue when viewed from certain directions7.5
JadeGreen jade dates to the pre-historic era and is actually two separate gems: nephrite and jadeite43989
Lapis LazuliRoyal blue with golden streaks of pyrite; this rock is made of several minerals: lazurite, calcite and pyrite5.5
MoonstoneA colorless, semi-transparent appearance with a light blue or silver sheen known as adularescence6.5
OpalOpal’s light diffraction results in a play of many colors; the color range and pattern help determine its value. Browse opal jewelry >6.5
PearlPearls take years to form and are produced in the bodies of marine and freshwater mollusks3
PeridotYellow-green gemstone found in volcanic and mountain rock and meterorites. Browse peridot jewelry >7
RubyDeep red color; known as the “king of precious stones.” Browse ruby jewelry >9
SapphireFound in a variety of colors including yellow, green, orange, pink and purple; prized for their deep blue saturated hue. Browse sapphire jewelry >9
SpinelSpinel, often sourced in red and blue, is sometimes confused with ruby. Browse spinel jewelry >8
TanzaniteBlue-to-violet or purple hues; recently discovered in Tanzania in 1967. Browse tanzanite jewelry >7
TopazWide color range of brown, blue, green, yellow, orange, red, pink and purple. Browse topaz jewelry >8
TourmalineOne of the widest color ranges of any gem; prized for intense violet blue gems of Paraíba, Brazil. Browse tourmaline jewelry >7.5
TurquoiseOpaque blue to green; among the world’s oldest found jewelry of ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesoamerica and China6
ZirconBlue, yellow, green, red, brown and colorless hues; known for bright and lustrous light reflection; not to be confused with cubic zirconia7.5



Jewelers of America

Last Updated on December 29, 2020 by JewelryNStyle

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